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Near East 

The Near East is also known as the "Cradle of Civilisation". From the Hittite Empire in the West to the Indus Valley in the East and south into North Africa.  It is her that writing probably began over five thousand years ago. Empires rose and fell. 

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Pythagoras Tablet

An Old Babylonian Cuneiform tablet demonstrating the workings of the square root of two. Dated to the 19th - 17th centuries BC. 

We often think that Pythagoaras, the Greek mathematician was the instigator of mathematics, but complex math workings go back to ancient Mesopotamia four thousand years ago.

Order now $49.95 aud plus P&H. 

Israel Land Tablet

An URIII Period 2200 - 2000BC tablet written in Akkadian Text but using Sumerian as a language.

Excavated in northern Israel this tablet it is either an inventory or a commercial transaction concerning fields identified in part by which canal (Irrigation Channel) they were next to. The text mentions land measurements and specific canals.

A BUR was a measure of a large land estate (1 BUR = 64,800 square meters).

One ESHE/EBEL is 6 IKU or 1/3 of a BUR (About 21,800 square meters or 18 hectares = 5 acres)

This tablet was part of a larger cuneiform tablet.

Suitable for discussion on land measurements and mathematics.

Original in our collection. 50 x 42 x 20mm.

Order now $49.95 and plus P&H

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Sumerian Counting Tokens

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These are reproductions of small clay counters or tokens used in the Near East in particular Mesopotamia from about 9,000 B.C. to 1500 B.C. Archaeologists have found over 500 distinct types, although not in all times and places. Tokens start to be found at widely separated sites as of 8,000 B.C. (C-14), such as Level III of Tell Mureybet in Syria and Level E of Ganj Dareh in western Iran. Tokens were used at sites throughout the Near East, from Israel to Syria, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran, with the exception of Central Anatolia. The farthest extent of their use was from Khartoum in the Sudan to the pre-Harappan site of Mehrgahr in Pakistan.  Each token was thought to have represented a particular commodity, some thought that the shape had some means of identification of the object represented.

These represent a precursor to the development of written text as they were used parallel to the early Sumerian pictographic writing systems as they developed and eventually disappeared. Other types were small shaped clay tokens that were sealed inside a clay ball which then had the token images impressed on the outside of the clay ball (bulla) as a means of creating a security system prior to the use of seals. This sealing of information within another clay object would go on to form the process of the clay envelopes used later. See 2 replicas of these clay envelopes below. 

A set of 12 tokens for sale.

Order now $49.95 Aud plus P&H

Max Mallowan Tablet

Unopened Cuneiform Tablet Envelope with 2 Seal Impressions.

Excavated by Archaeologist Max Mallowan and his wife Agatha Christie at Nimrud (Assyria).

 

This is a cuneiform tablet the original sealed inside and covered with a second layer of clay, then the agreement for a loan of silver is rewritten on the outer "envelope" and sealed on the reverse with 2 stamp seal impressions. It was then witnessed by six witnesses. Dated 28 Nisan 650BC. In the event of a disagreement as to the loan, the outer envelope would be broken off and the inner text checked against the outer to make sure it hadn't been tampered with.

Order now for $49.95 Aud plus P&H

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Ugarit Tablet with Seal

Akkadian Cuneiform Text from Ugarit with a cylinder sealed impression across the top. It is a land grant that the grantee has to pay for. It is done so by Niqmepa King of Ugarit to his servant with payment of 150 shekels of gold.

$45.00 Aud plus P&H

Darius the Great 

A wall frieze depicting part of a figure of Darius I of Persia. From the northern stairs at Persepolis. This is a partial relief panel of King Darius seated on his throne in his palace.

140 x 100 x 10mm.

$49.95 Aud plus P&H 

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Sumerian Counting Tokens

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This is a reproduction of a set of early clay tokens and their bulla.

 Small tokens were modelled from clay, each shape representing a different trading commodity. For example a cone usually represented a measure of grain.

When a trade agreement had been made, the supplier would make a series of tokens that represented the commodities that were agreed on in the deal.

He would then made a hollow clay ball into which he would insert the tokens and then close it over to seal it shut. He would then make impressions on the outside of the clay "Bulla" to represent what was inside and would also impress his seal on the bulla as well to authorise and "seal" the deal.

The products would be sent to the buyer. On receiving the shipment the buyer would count his received items and then break open the clay bulla and check that the items he received matched the agreed number represented by the tokens inside the bulla. If the numbers did not match he would contest the deal.

What today we might compare to a shipping receipt.

These clay tokens and bullae were in use long before writing and would eventually lead to the use of the early pictographic clay tablet and eventually the use of Cuneiform throughout Mesopotamia.

This set is hand made and will vary slightly in colour and shape/size. It comes with a set of 7 tokens and an open bulla. The bulla has the token impressions on one side and a seal impression on the other. A great set to demonstrate how writing evolved from the use of tokens. 

$59.95 Aud plus P&H

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Ebla Tablet

2250BC Tablet excavated at ancient Ebla from a Royal archive. They were found in a collapsed archive that would have been stored many thousands of tablets many of which still contained their clay identifying tags. These were administrative tablets .

$49.95 Aud plus P&H

Old Babylonian Tablet with Envelope

A clay tablet and its outer envelope. Dated 1822-1763 BC to the reign of Rim Sin  who was king of Larsa and a contemporary of Hammurabi. It records receipt for 6th months supply of grain. The tablet comes in two parts, the inner tablet is written with the initial text and then it is enclosed in another layer of clay to form a security envelope. The text is copied exactly on this outer layer. Should any one question the agreement on the inside tablet (the original agreement) then the outer envelope is broken off to check it coincides with the inner text.

$59.95 Aud plus P&H

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Proto Elamite Tablet

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A reproduction of a Proto-Elamite accounting tablet. The text reads right to left and is dated to 2900BC from the region of Elam (Southern present day Iraq). Proto Elamite is quite different to the cuneiform script used elsewhere in Mesopotamia at the time and was more linear with strokes, lines and circles. All existing examples appear to be accounting records as they contain what appears to logographic sign groups followed immediately by numbers. Proto Elamite has not yet been deciphered as there is not yet a large enough corpus of samples to develop the information required. $59.95 Aud plus P&H

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Nabonidus Cylinder

A Babylonian inscription in the form of a cylinder with 2 columns and 31 lines of cuneiform characters. It records the rebuilding of the god Sin's ziggurat at Ur by the king Nabonidus while then entreating the moon-god to guard he and his son Belshazzar from any wrong doing. 

Interesting fact: Nabonidus was an amateur archaeologist and was often found exploring ancient sites. 

556BC. 100 x 50mm

$89.95 Aud plus P&H

Duck weight from Mesopotamia

During the Bronze Age small carved weights shaped as a duck with its head resting on its back, were used throughout Mesopotamia.

They were carved from stone or sometimes from semi precious stone such as agate. We do not fully understand why they were shaped as a duck. This example has its weight in cuneiform characters on one side and a series of linear strokes on the other side.  55 x 35 x 32mm

$29.95 Aud plus P&H

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Sumerian Star Map

A Sumerian Planisphere found in the Library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh in present day Iraq. Dated to 650BC. It is an Astrolabe or a star map and after modern computer analysis of the text is dated to represent the sky over Mesopotamia in 3100BC. It is a copy of a much earlier text. It demonstrates the understanding of sophisticated astronomy of five thousand years ago. Research shows that it appears to record the Kofel Impact an asteroid that crossed the sky and impacted earth in present day Austria.

$89.95AUD plus P&H

Sumerian Free Slave Tablet

A Sumerian tablet c2550BC frpm the reign of King Shurrupak describing the transaction of a house and land of a half SAR (about 54 square meters) that includes a free male slave. 

Slaves in ancient Sumerian were usually from conquered territory and are usually used as domestic aides or concubines. They were usually well looked after and often better treated than they sometimes were at home. They were protected from ill treatment by law and were often included in land sales, though such treatment in ancient history was not always so.

$59.95 Aud plus P&H

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UR III Cuneiform Tablet

A small double sided cuneiform tablet from the UR III Period 2193 - 2004 BC. 

The tablet is an accounting tablet recording the number of Ewes being traded.

$39.95 AUD plus P&H

Cuneiform Cone/nail of Gudea

Cuneiform cones (sometimes called nails) were a cone shaped clay tablet that almost looks like an ice cream cone. It would have a dedicatory text inscribed around it and then the cone was inserted into the wall of a public building, such as a temple. This is a reproduction of a cone made for Gudea, governor of Legash 2144-2124BC. He built a temple to the god End and this was his dedication and in sense his attempt at memorialising himself. 

The cone comes with a transliteration off the text so you or your students can practise reading cuneiform.

$59.95AUD plus P&H

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Plimpton 322 - Trigonometry

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When we think of mathematics and its development we usually go to Pythagoras or sometimes early Indian mathematics but essentially mathematics developed in ancient Mathematics over five thousand years ago. We get our 60 minutes/seconds on our clocks from there, the 360 degrees of a circle and trigonometry. 

Professor of mathematics Dr Daniel Marsden at the University of NSW in Sydney, Australia recently revisited this tablet studying the mathematic processes on it and determined that the ancient Mesopotamians knew an advanced form of trigonometry that we still are understanding today. 

Babylonian 1800BC.

$99.95AUD plus P&H

Gilgamesh Tablet

The epic of Gilgamesh an historic tale of a man and his encounters that have many similarities to the Biblical Noah.

This tale was been recited many times throughout history and would have been an inscription practised many times by budding scribes.

This tablet is one of twelve of a series excavated at Koyunjik in modern day Iraq and is tablet #11.  This tablet would have been written in the 7th century BC and contains some of the story of Gilgamesh and the flood.

$89.95AUD plus P&H

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Persian "Goat" Cup

Ancient Persia Goat Cup Reproduction Gold Leaf. 

A reproduction of a gold plated cup from ancient Persia with three images of the head of a goat around the base. 15cm tall artificial gold leaf, resin casting.

$99.95AUD plus P&H

Cylinder Seal of Adda

This is one of the many cylinder seals that were made when much of Mesopotamia was united under the military control of the kings of the city of Agade (Akkad). The cuneiform inscription identifies the owner of the seal as Adda, who is described as dubsar, or scribe.

The figures can be identified as gods by their pointed hats with multiple horns. The figure with streams of water and fish flowing from his shoulders is Ea (Sumerian Enki), god of subterranean waters and of wisdom. Behind him stands Usimu, his two-faced vizier (chief minister).

At the center of the scene is the sun-god, Shamash (Sumerian Utu), with rays rising from his shoulders. He is cutting his way through the mountains in order to rise at dawn.

To his left is a winged goddess, Ishtar (Sumerian Inanna). The weapons rising from her shoulders symbolize her warlike characteristics; she also holds a cluster of dates.

The god armed with a bow and quiver has not been identified with certainty, but may represent a hunting god like Nusku.

Includes a replica of the cylinder seal and the seal impression.

$54.95AUD plus P&H

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Cylinder Seal of Queen Pu-abi of UR.

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This is a replica of the cylinder seal found beside the body of the Queen buried in the burial pit along with the spectacular gold head dress. The original seal was made of Lapis Lazuli. Lapis Lazuli at the time became synonymous with wealth and splendor and was attributed to the gods and heros. Most Lapis was imported from Badakhshan in Afghanistan. Lapis is actually a rock not a mineral like many other materials used for seals, actually belonging to the marble family. Calcite plus the lazuli, which caused the blue colour gave Lapis Lazuli. The seal bears the Queens name written in ancient Sumerian and is a very large seal.(50mm x 25mm - 2" x 1") The impression depicts a banqueting scene. The seal is resin cast.

Includes a replica of the cylinder seal and the impression.

$54.95AUD plus P&H

Cylinder Seal of Ur-Nammu

Neo-Sumerian.

Ur-Nammu 2112-2095BC was first king of URIII Dynasty. Here he bestows governorship on Hashamer. 

Text reads" " Ur Nammu, strong man, King of Ur: ash-hamer, of the city of Ishkun-Sin is your servant."

Includes a replica of the cylinder seal and the impression.

$54.95AUD plus P&H

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Indus Valley Seal Set

A set of a seal and seal impressions from the Indus Valley civilisation. From Harappa and Mohenjodaro these seals display the imagery and the still undeciphered text of the Indus Valley. c2500BC.

$89.95AUD plus P&H

1 seal & matching impression plus 3 seal impressions. 

The seal can be used in a class activity.

Hittite Cylinder Seal

Time of King Suppiluliamas. About 1380 - 1300 B.C. A religious referral cylinder seal, depicting two high ranking temple attendants, with a 'Tree of lite' between them and two crouching deer, heads turned backward. A fine horizontal double stranded guilloche above deer and a laurel stand beneath.

$39.95AUD plus P&H Seal only.

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Mittanian Cylinder Seal

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Resin cast replica. About 1450 - 1300 B.C. A bearded deity, enthroned, wearing a long skirt with paired vertical and horizontal stripes and a domed crown with horns. The Moon God ISIN above. The deity is being approached by a male and female consort in litigation. A cob of corn is in the fore front of the deity. A star and a two horned serpent, representing chaos, trailing behind the female consort. A very scarce cylinder seal. Superbly caved with fine detail. 

$39.95AUD plus P&H Seal only. 

Neo Babylonian Cylinder Seal

Resin cast replica with presentation scene. About 626 - 539 BC. Finely carved in an elegant and restrained style with two men wearing domed cap with crested upturned brim, standing before an enthroned young king. The man in front is holding a lightning rod, symbol of Adad, the weather god. A vertical double guilloche pattern complimenting the scene.

$39.95AUD plus P&H Seal only.

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Elamite Cylinder Seal

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 About 1200 B.C. An intense and intricately carved cylinder seal. This Hematite Cylinder seal in most probability is a referral to the Invasion of Babylon by the Elamites and the demise of the Kassite Dynasty in 1200 B.C. The seal might represent the last kassite ruler being taken away in a 2 horse drawn cart. In the sky the constellation Pleidades, a star, a sign of Victory. During the Elamite period some seals were even made of bitumen.

$39.95AUD plus P&H Seal only.

Philistine Cylinder Seal

Resin cast replica. Bronze Age. About 1600 - 800 B.C. Probably a mythological representation showing an enthroned dignitary, and a host of other symbols, including a Philistine warrior moving left. 

$39.95AUD plus P&H Seal only. 

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Ancient Seal Set

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A set of four replica cylinder seals from the ancient Near East to use as a hands on activity in the classroom.

1. Kassite Cylinder Seal with image and cuneiform.

2. Indus Valley Cylinder Seal with script and image.

3. Elamite Cylinder Seal invasion of Babylon

4. Mittanian Cylinder Seal 

$89.95AUD plus P&H

Noah Cylinder Seal

A small cylinder seal that depicts Utnapishtim in a box surrounded by water and Gilgamesh travels to meet him to tell him about the flood. Utnapishtim is the Sumerian Noah.

$34.95AUD plus P&H Seal only. 

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Uruk Cylinder Seal

A Lapis Lazuli Cylinder Seal found buried in the [recinct of Inanna in Uruk. Dated late Uruk Period this one 3300-3000 BC. The image depicts a priest/king on a boat standing before what is probably the facade of a temple. He has a long beard and wears a textured skirt and is probably a king of very high rank. he leads a bull with a model of a temple on its back and has two servants propelling the boat. It was likely placed in the temple precinct as an offering the the goddess.

$39.95AUD plus P&H 3D print reproduction. 

Seal is 55mm x 37mm D

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Ziggurat at Ur

A small model of the Ziggurat of Ur-Nammu at the ancient city of Ur. 2050 - 2030 BC. It was made of mud brick with a burnt brick facing. It eventually fell into ruin by was restored much later by Nabonidus in the 6th century BC. 

$49.95Aud plus P&H. 3d printed. 90 x 130 x 50mm. 

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